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Compiling The Reference List And Bibliography Format

Use a single list which integrates all the different types of source material you have used. The exception is where you have discussed a number of primary sources (such as novels, films, ancient sources, letters, historical documents etc), when you should separate your bibliography into primary and secondary sources. All lists should be ordered alphabetically by first-named author's surname or organisation if there is no named author.

A reference list should be treated the same way as a bibliography unless you are using a numeric referencing system. In this case, sources are assigned a number when they first appear in the text, and are listed in numerical order.

Example bibliography using Harvard referencing:

Anon. (1981). Coffee drinking and cancer of the pancreas. British Medical Journal, 283, 628.

Bould, M. & Reid, M. (eds) (2005). Parietal Games: Critical Writings by and on M. John Harrison. Cambridge: Science Fiction Foundation.

Hamilakis, Y., Pluciennik, M. & Tarlow, S. (2001). Academic Performances, Artistic Presentations. Assemblage, 6. http://www.shef.ac.uk/assem/issue6/art_web.html (accessed 08/07/02).

Royal Horticultural Society (n.d.). Plant finder: Genista. Online at www.rhs.org.uk/plantfinder/genista (accessed 25/08/07).

Shahabudin, K. (2006). From Greek Myth to Hollywood Story: Explanatory Narrative in Troy. In M. M. Winkler (ed.), Troy: From Homer's Iliad to Hollywood Epic. Malden, MA: Blackwell. 107-118.

Turner, J.E., Henry, L.A. & Smith. P.T. (2000). The development of the use of long-term knowledge to assist short-term recall. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. Section A. 53.2, 457-478.

Watch this brief video tutorial on Compiling a bibliography (link will open an external website):


DOI = digital object identifier

  • A DOI commonly identifies a journal articlebut it can also be found on other publication types including books.
  • All DOIs start with 10. and includes numbers and letters. Example: doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.08.001
  • The DOI provides a permanent internet address for the item making it easy to locate.
  • You may search by DOI numbers in Library Search or http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.aut.ac.nz to locate articles.

Doi in your reference list entry:

  • Always use the DOI if available (for print or online articles and books). 
  • No full stop at the end of a DOI. 


A new citing format for DOI was introduced by APA in March 2017. The new format includes https and the prefix doi.org: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001


Oppenheimer, D., Zaromb, F., Pomerantz, J. R., Williams, J. C., & Park, Y. S. (2017). Improvement of writing skills during college: A multi-year cross-sectional and longitudinal study of undergraduate writing performance. Assessing Writing, 32, 12–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.asw.2016.11.001

Notes: the following old DOI styles are still acceptable:



If there is no DOI for a online journal article or an e-book, include a URL in your reference.

Use the URL of a journal home page for journal articles without DOI

  • Use the URL of the journal homepage, NOT the full URL of the article, in your reference.

Finding a journal homepage URL:

  • You could do a Google search for the journal title (within double quotation marks), e.g. "new zealand management magazine" to find the journal's homepage

  • Or, go to the Library database Ulrichsweb, search by the journal title or the journal's ISSN to find the journal record. On the journal record page, find the journal URL for your reference.

Journals without a home page and no DOI:

This can happen to some discontinued journals, or journals archived in an archival database only. 

  • Use the database home page URL in your reference. See the example in the following section.  


Use a URL of a library database:

Resources retrieved from a library database, without a DOI:

If you use electronic resources without DOI, such as an ebook or a data set or a journal without a website, from a library database, You are required to include the URL of the database homepage in your reference.

  • Do not use the full URL of the source that you retrieved from a database.



An ebook "Small town sustainability: economic, social,and environmental innovation".

The URL on the ebook page is:


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