Students are asked to write literary analysis essays because this type of assignment encourages you to think about how and why a poem, short story, novel, or play was written. To successfully analyze literature, you’ll need to remember that authors make specific choices for particular reasons. Your essay should point out the author’s choices and attempt to explain their significance.
Another way to look at a literary analysis is to consider a piece of literature from your own perspective. Rather than thinking about the author’s intentions, you can develop an argument based on any single term (or combination of terms) listed below. You’ll just need to use the original text to defend and explain your argument to the reader.
Allegory - narrative form in which the characters are representative of some larger humanistic trait (i.e. greed, vanity, or bravery) and attempt to convey some larger lesson or meaning to life. Although allegory was originally and traditionally character based, modern allegories tend to parallel story and theme.
- William Faulkner’s A Rose for Emily- the decline of the Old South
- Robert Louis Stevenson’s Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde- man’s struggle to contain his inner primal instincts
- District 9- South African Apartheid
- X Men- the evils of prejudice
- Harry Potter- the dangers of seeking “racial purity”
Character - representation of a person, place, or thing performing traditionally human activities or functions in a work of fiction
- Protagonist - The character the story revolves around.
- Antagonist - A character or force that opposes the protagonist.
- Minor character - Often provides support and illuminates the protagonist.
- Static character - A character that remains the same.
- Dynamic character - A character that changes in some important way.
- Characterization - The choices an author makes to reveal a character’s personality, such as appearance, actions, dialogue, and motivations.
Look for: Connections, links, and clues between and about characters. Ask yourself what the function and significance of each character is. Make this determination based upon the character's history, what the reader is told (and not told), and what other characters say about themselves and others.
Connotation - implied meaning of word. BEWARE! Connotations can change over time.
- confidence/ arrogance
- mouse/ rat
- cautious/ scared
- curious/ nosey
- frugal/ cheap
Denotation - dictionary definition of a word
Diction - word choice that both conveys and emphasizes the meaning or theme of a poem through distinctions in sound, look, rhythm, syllable, letters, and definition
Figurative language - the use of words to express meaning beyond the literal meaning of the words themselves
- Metaphor - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme without using like or as
- You are the sunshine of my life.
- Simile - contrasting to seemingly unalike things to enhance the meaning of a situation or theme using like or as
- What happens to a dream deferred, does it dry up like a raisin in the sun
- Hyperbole - exaggeration
- I have a million things to do today.
- Personification - giving non-human objects human characteristics
- America has thrown her hat into the ring, and will be joining forces with the British.
Foot - grouping of stressed and unstressed syllables used in line or poem
- Iamb - unstressed syllable followed by stressed
- Made famous by the Shakespearian sonnet, closest to the natural rhythm of human speech
- How do I love thee? Let me count the ways
- Spondee - stressed stressed
- Used to add emphasis and break up monotonous rhythm
- Blood boil, mind-meld, well- loved
- Trochee - stressed unstressed
- Often used in children’s rhymes and to help with memorization, gives poem a hurried feeling
- While I nodded, nearly napping, suddenly there came a tapping,
- Anapest - unstressed unstressed stressed
- Often used in longer poems or “rhymed stories”
- Twas the night before Christmas and all through the house
- Dactyls - stressed unstressed unstressed
- Often used in classical Greek or Latin text, later revived by the Romantics, then again by the Beatles, often thought to create a heartbeat or pulse in a poem
- Picture yourself in a boat on a river,
With tangerine trees and marmalade skies.
The iamb stumbles through my books; trochees rush and tumble; while anapest runs like a hurrying brook; dactyls are stately and classical.
Imagery - the author’s attempt to create a mental picture (or reference point) in the mind of the reader. Remember, though the most immediate forms of imagery are visual, strong and effective imagery can be used to invoke an emotional, sensational (taste, touch, smell etc) or even physical response.
Meter - measure or structuring of rhythm in a poem
Plot - the arrangement of ideas and/or incidents that make up a story
- Foreshadowing - When the writer clues the reader in to something that will eventually occur in the story; it may be explicit (obvious) or implied (disguised).
- Suspense - The tension that the author uses to create a feeling of discomfort about the unknown
- Conflict - Struggle between opposing forces.
- Exposition - Background information regarding the setting, characters, plot.
- Rising Action - The process the story follows as it builds to its main conflict
- Crisis - A significant turning point in the story that determines how it must end
- Resolution/Denouement - The way the story turns out.
Point of View - pertains to who tells the story and how it is told. The point of view of a story can sometimes indirectly establish the author's intentions.
- Narrator - The person telling the story who may or may not be a character in the story.
- First-person - Narrator participates in action but sometimes has limited knowledge/vision.
- Second person - Narrator addresses the reader directly as though she is part of the story. (i.e. “You walk into your bedroom. You see clutter everywhere and…”)
- Third Person (Objective) - Narrator is unnamed/unidentified (a detached observer). Does not assume character's perspective and is not a character in the story. The narrator reports on events and lets the reader supply the meaning.
- Omniscient - All-knowing narrator (multiple perspectives). The narrator knows what each character is thinking and feeling, not just what they are doing throughout the story. This type of narrator usually jumps around within the text, following one character for a few pages or chapters, and then switching to another character for a few pages, chapters, etc. Omniscient narrators also sometimes step out of a particular character’s mind to evaluate him or her in some meaningful way.
Rhythm - often thought of as a poem’s timing. Rhythm is the juxtaposition of stressed and unstressed beats in a poem, and is often used to give the reader a lens through which to move through the work. (See meter and foot)
Setting - the place or location of the action. The setting provides the historical and cultural context for characters. It often can symbolize the emotional state of characters. Example – In Poe’s The Fall of the House of Usher, the crumbling old mansion reflects the decaying state of both the family and the narrator’s mind. We also see this type of emphasis on setting in Thomas Mann’s Death in Venice.
Speaker - the person delivering the poem. Remember, a poem does not have to have a speaker, and the speaker and the poet are not necessarily one in the same.
Structure (fiction) - The way that the writer arranges the plot of a story.
Look for: Repeated elements in action, gesture, dialogue, description, as well as shifts in direction, focus, time, place, etc.
Structure(poetry) - The pattern of organization of a poem. For example, a Shakespearean sonnet is a 14-line poem written in iambic pentameter. Because the sonnet is strictly constrained, it is considered a closed or fixed form. An open or free form poem has looser form, or perhaps one of the author’s invention, but it is important to remember that these poems are not necessarily formless.
Symbolism - when an object is meant to be representative of something or an idea greater than the object itself.
- Cross - representative of Christ or Christianity
- Bald Eagle - America or Patriotism
- Owl - wisdom or knowledge
- Yellow - implies cowardice or rot
Tone - the implied attitude towards the subject of the poem. Is it hopeful, pessimistic, dreary, worried? A poet conveys tone by combining all of the elements listed above to create a precise impression on the reader.
Â©G. Kim Blank&Â Magdalena KayÂ < >Â English Department, University of Victoria
INTRODUCTION: There is no single way to do a close reading of a poem. Sometimes an impression is a way in; sometimes the â€œvoiceâ€ in the poem stands out; sometimes it is a matter of knowing the genre of the poem; sometimes groupings of key words, phrases, or images seem to be its most striking elements; and sometimes it takes a while to get any impression whatsoever. The goal, however, is constant: you want to come to a deeper understanding of the poem. There are, nonetheless, steps you can take toward this goalâ€”the first being, obviously, to read the poem very carefullyâ€”as well as specific elements you can look for and questions you can ask.
Keep in mind that whenever you interpret a poem, it has to be backed up by reference to the poem itself. Remember, too, that no one close reading of a poem has ever â€œsolvedâ€ or mastered that poem, and thatÂ rereading a poem or passage is often like doing a new reading, inasmuch as more is usually seen with subsequent readings.
A note on â€œkey termsâ€: hundreds of terms are associated with the study of poetry. In our GuideÂ you will see we have selected only a few, mainly those that might offer immediate application for your close reading; you can scroll over these underlined words for their definitions. For a more extensive list, consult either of these sites:Â Poetsâ€™ GraveÂ orÂ Representative Poetry Online.
1. THE TITLE. A poemâ€™s title does not always have great significance. The title might not make much sense until you start to understand the poem. The title â€œThe Sick Roseâ€ (by William Blake) gives us a reasonable hint about what the poem means. T. S. Eliotâ€™s title â€œThe Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrockâ€ seems to give some direction, but after reading the poem, the title might be considered misleading or ironic. Wallace Stevensâ€™ title â€œThe Snow Manâ€ gives very little help.
- Does the title immediately influence what you are about to read, or does it, at the moment you begin your first reading, remain mysterious or vague?
- After you have thought about the poem, how do you think the title relates to it?
2. KEYWORDS: DICTION, REGISTER & TONE. Pay exceedingly close attention to what individual words meanâ€”and especially to what you think might be keywords, since this is where meaning can be concentrated.
- Which words stand out, and why?
Consider how words may carry more than one meaning. A dictionary is obviously useful, especially one based on historical principles, since it will point to how the meanings of words may have changed over time. â€œSillyâ€ once meant â€œhelpless.â€
- Do any words carry non-contemporary or unfamiliar meanings?
- Do any words likely carry multiple and/or ambiguous meanings? Â
- Do repeated words carry the same meaning when repeated, or do they change? Words often gather or evolve in meaning when repeated. Â
- Do particular words or phrases seem drawn to or connected with each other? These often add up so that a clearer sense of the poem emerges.
- Do you notice lots of material or immaterial things (nouns) or lots of action (verbs)? Is the poem concrete, about specific things and places, or is the poem more abstract, about concepts or ideas? Is the poem full of movement, or does it seem to stay still and look at one thing?
- Do certain words seem to clash with each other, and what effect does this have? Think in terms of oppositions, tensions, conflicts, and binaries.
Consider word choice, or diction:
- Is the word choice distinctive? Does it add up to a kind of styleâ€”for example, is it elaborate, dense, simple, archaic, formal, conversational, descriptive, abstract, and so on?
- How would you describe the level of language and vocabulary (register): informal, formal, common, casual, neutral, mixed?
Tone. Address the tone of the speaker or narrator, which is the attitude taken by the poemâ€™s voice toward the subject or subjects in the poem:
- What is the attitude taken by the â€œvoiceâ€ of the poem toward the subjects of the poem? Is the tone serious, ironic, amorous, argumentative, distant, intimate, somber, abrupt, playful, cheerful, despondent, conversational, yearning, etc.â€”or is it mixed, changing, ambiguous, or unclear?
[Key terms: style, diction, register, tone, irony, ambiguity.]
3. WORD ORDER. Focus on how the words are ordered. Look for patterns; in drawing attention to themselves, they require your attention:
- Is the word order or sentence structure (syntax) unusual in any way, and what is the effect of this?
- Are there any noticeable patterns in the ordering of words? If so, how do the patterns contribute to meaning?
- Do the lines have strong end-stops, or do they break across lines (enjamb)? Do the lines end with a final stress or rhyme? Does each line tend to be a self-contained, grammatical unit, or does it vary? What effect does this have?
- Are there lots of long, complete sentences (simple or complex?), or are there many sentence fragments and phrases? Does the poem stop and start, or does it move or flow continuously? What is the effect of this?
Punctuation. Punctuation organizes and creates relationship between words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. In poetry, where lines are often seen as units of meaning, the importance of punctuation is sometimes magnified, though often overlooked. Punctuation can create or reinforce rhythm. It can also control meaning or make meaning uncertain by its placement and usage, especially if it is used minimally, or in some cases, not at all.
- What role does punctuation have in the poem?
- Does it follow accepted rules and conventions, or is it used in unusual ways?
[Key terms: syntax, enjambment, end-stopped line, stress, rhyme.]
4. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE; IMAGERY. Related to word meaning is figurative language, which often plays a crucial role in both condensing language yet expanding meaning. Most generally, figurative language refers to language that is not literal. The phrase â€œfierce tearsâ€ (the personification of tears) is not literal, but it is both precise and suggestive in carrying meaning.
- Are certain words used in unusual, non-literal, non-standard, exaggerated, or metaphorical ways? What effect do these figures of speech have?
- Which words or phrases are used literally (they denote something literal) and which are used figuratively (they connote something figurative)?Â
Much of what we read is literal: The evening sky was dark; he looked up; he felt sick.Â Figurative language refers to language not used literallyâ€”it is used abstractly, indirectly, and often evocatively. The evening is spread out against the sky like a patient etherized upon a table. Here we have an evening (a thing), spreading (an action), a patient (thing), etherizing (an action), and a table (thing). But an evening cannot be a drugged patient spread out upon a table, perhaps ready to be operated upon; this description cannot be literally true (there is no patient, no etherizing, no table, and evenings donâ€™t literally spread out against skies); this language is used figuratively.
- How does non-literal or figurative language suggest a certain meaning?
- What mood or feeling is evoked via this figurative, non-literal language?
Imagery. WhenÂ figurative languageÂ (like metaphor or simile) provides a picture that evokes any of the senses, we call this imagery. “She is the sun” (a simile) contains imagery of light and warmth (the senses of sight and touch).Â
- What imageryâ€”pictures or senses that are evoked in wordsâ€”is present in the poem? What imagery, if any, is most striking, frequent, or patterned?
- What images seem related or connected to each other?
- What mood or atmosphere is created by the imagery?
- Which details stand out? Why?
- What sense (if any) seems to dominate the poem: sight, sound, taste, touch, smell?
Allusion. Poetry sometimes contains brief references to things outside itselfâ€”a person, place, or thingâ€”that will expand, clarify, or complicate its meaning. Sometimes they are obvious and direct, and sometimes they are subtle, indirect, and debatable. Allusions are frequently references made to other texts (for example, to the Bible, or to another poem).
- What allusions, if any, can you detect?
- What effect do the allusions have upon the poem?
- If it is a literary allusion, how does it relate to or connect with the original text?
[Key terms: figures of speech, connotation, denotation, metaphor, simile, irony, imagery, personification, allegory, symbol, allusion.]
Â 5. SOUND: Rhythm/Meter/Melody/Rhyme. You probably first read a poem to yourself, silently, but most poems also create sense though sounds, unlike concrete poetry, which operates visually. Try reading the poem aloud. Sound brings attention to both individual words that are drawn together through their sound as well as to the overall â€œfeelingâ€ or experience. For example, repetition of sounds like â€œs,â€ â€œm,â€ â€œl,â€ and â€œfâ€ might encourage a soft or sensuous feeling: â€œSeason of mists and mellow fruitfulness . . .â€
- What words are drawn to each other because of sound, and how does this influence meaning? What tone do these sounds create (quiet, loud, sensual, aggressive, etc.)?
Also, think about whether the poem â€œmovesâ€ slowly or quickly, jerkily or fluidly.
- Does the poem move differently at different places in the poem? What effect does this have?
- How do the poemâ€™s sounds contribute to its meaning? Does a particular sound or sounds dominate the poem? What is the effect of this?
Rhythm. A poemâ€™s rhythm can be regular or irregular. When it has regular rhythmical sound patterns, we say the poem has a certain meter. The type of meter is based on the number of syllables per line and how many unstressed (x) or stressed (/) syllables there are. (“I WAN-dered LONE-ly AS a CLOUD“; x / Â x / Â x / Â x / ). A small, distinct group of accented words is called a foot (â€œa CLOUDâ€; x /). The various metersâ€”tetrameter, pentameter, etc.â€”are based on the number of feet per line. (The meter in the above example has four regular feet, and is therefore tetrameter; because each foot has an unstressed syllable [x] followed by a stressed one [/], this is called an iamb. We would then say that the line is in iambic tetrameter; if it had an extra footâ€”that is, five feetâ€”we would call it iambic pentameter.)
- When you count out (scan) the syllables of a line, do they follow a rhythm? Is there a name for it?
- How prominent is the poem’s rhythm? Does the rhythm have any influence on the poem’s meaning? If so, in what way or ways?
Melody. Melody refers to sound effects, such as rhyme, alliteration, assonance, and consonance, with each producing a unique melodic effect. Rhyme is a type of melody, and rhymes can be perfectÂ with identical vowel sounds (â€œguyâ€ and â€œhighâ€) or slant, when the sound of the final consonants is identical, but not the vowels (â€œshellâ€ and â€œpill,â€ â€œcementâ€ and â€œantâ€).
- Do words at the end of lines rhyme? Why kind of rhymes are they? Do they form a pattern (a rhyme scheme) that is regular or irregular?
- Do the rhyming words have any relationship with each other? Does the rhyme concentrate meaning in any way?
[Key terms: concrete poetry, rhyme, rhyme scheme, rhythm, meter, stress, alliteration, consonance, assonance, scansion, prosody, foot / feet, iambic pentameter, melody, slant rhyme, perfect rhyme, couplet, blank verse.]
6. SPEAKER/ADDRESSEE; NARRATIVE/NARRATOR. All poems have a voice, which can be called a speaker (or in some case speakers, if there is more than one person â€œspeakingâ€ the poem).
- Who â€œtellsâ€ the poem? Are there things you can say about the speakerâ€™s personality, point of view, tone, society, age, or gender?
- Does the speaker assume a persona at any point in the poem, and speak â€œasâ€ a particular person (e.g., â€œI am Lazarus, come from the dead . . . I shall tell you allâ€)?
- Does the speaker seem attached or detached from what is said?
- What effect do the speakerâ€™s characteristics have on the poem?
Likewise, all poems have a silent or implied listener/reader, an addressee.
- Is it possible to figure out to whom the poem is addressed? Is there an ideal listener or reader?
- Does the speaker seek anything from the listener/reader (sympathy, support, agreement, etc.)?
Narrative/Narrator. Poems capture thoughts, ideas, feelings, impressions, experiences, and incidents, but sometimes poems also tell a story. Ask yourself:
- What is happening in the poem? What action, drama, or conflict is present? Is there more than one event in the poem? Does anything change in the poem (is an action completed, does an attempted action fail, or does someone change in an important way)?
- Who tells the story, and what relationship does the narrator have to the story?
[Key terms: speaker, addressee, tone, persona, point of view, ideal reader / listener, narrative, narrator, voice, conflict, dramatic monologue, lyric poem, irony, theme.]
7. TIME; SETTING.
- What is the temporal structure of the poem? Does it take place in one time (the present, the past, the future) or does it move back and forth between times?
- Does it present single actions in time or continuing actions? Does it bring different times together or set them apart (e.g., â€œthenâ€ vs. â€œnowâ€)?
- Is there a particular occasion for the poem (an incident, an event, a realization)?
- Does it focus on indicative states (â€œI am, I will beâ€) or conditional states (â€œI could be, I would beâ€)?
- Are different parts of the poem located in different times?
- Does time move smoothly? Are different states of being, or different ways of thinking, associated with different times? (â€œI used to think â€˜Xâ€™, but now I thinkÂ â€˜Yâ€™â€)?
Setting answers the questions â€œWhere?â€ and â€œWhen?â€ in the poem, though often poems are not set in a specific location or time.
- Is a sense of place clear (urban, pastoral, forest, desert, beach, etc.), or does the poem seem to occupy an abstract time and place (such as mental or emotional state)?
For some poems, a difficult but key question may be this:
Â 8. SYMBOL. A symbol represents or stands for something other than the image itself. A symbol, then, is often something concreteâ€”a word, a thing, a place, a person (real of fictitious), an action, an event, a creation, etc.â€”that represents something larger, abstract, or complexâ€”an idea, a value, a belief, an emotion. A river (a thing) can be symbol for life; Gomorrah (a place) can be a symbol of shameless sin; Homer Simpson (a fictitious person) can be a symbol of innocent stupidity; a strawberry (a thing) can be a symbol of sensual love.
- Does the poem have any clear or central symbols? What meaning do they bring to the poem?
Â 9. FORM. Poetic form usually refers to the structure that â€œholdsâ€ or gives â€œshapeâ€ to the poemâ€”in a way, what it looks like to you on the page. This will include groupings or sets of lines, called stanzas. Another, more interesting way to consider form is to say that it necessarily determines the content of the poem, especially in the case of a particular genre, like a ballad, epic, or sonnet; these specific forms (sometimes called â€œclosed formsâ€) often have structures and stylistic conventions that are both structural and that convey units of meaning or conventions of rhyme, meter, or expression. If the poem you are reading has a particular form or structure determined by genre, learn something about the conventions of that genre, since this can direct your attention to certain expectations of content.
- Is the poem of a particular genre? What are its conventions?
- If it doesnâ€™t fit particular genre, how would you describe its form?
- What is the relationship between form and meaning in the poem?
- Are there clear parts to the poem, and if so, how are they similar/different?
Poems that do not follow determined, formal conventions or genre have an â€œopen form.â€
[Key terms: style, stanza, genre, closed form, open form, ballad, epic poem, sonnet.]
Â 10. IDEAS & THEME.
- Are the ideas of the poem simple or complex, small or large?
- Is there one main problem in the poem? How does the poem think through that problem?
- What are the ideas that the poem seeks to embody in images?
- What is the poemâ€™s process of thinking? Does it change its â€œmindâ€ as it proceeds?
- Does the poem proceed logically or illogically? Can you tell the way it is thinking, or is it unclear, opaque, and confusing?
- How do the ideas change from line to line, stanza to stanza?
- Does the poem offer an argument?
- Does the poem reflect a particular experience, feeling, or concept?
Theme. â€œPurityâ€ is a subject, not a theme; â€œpurity is vulnerabilityâ€ is a theme. â€œThemeâ€ refers to a larger, more general, or universal messageâ€”a big ideaâ€”as well as to something that you could take away from the work and perhaps apply to life. One way to determine a theme is to
1) ask yourself what the poem is about;
2) come up with some one-word answers to that question (subjects of the poem); and
3) ask what general attitude (tone) is taken towards those subjects in the poem.
You might conclude that, for example, â€œlove,â€ â€œtrust,â€ or â€œlossâ€ are subjects. Now, try to figure out what the attitude in the poem is toward that one-word subject and you have themeâ€”for example, â€œlove is dangerous,â€ â€œyou cannot trust people close to you,â€ â€œloss makes you stronger.â€ But donâ€™t think this is always easy or straightforward: many poems resist reduction to simple themes or even subjects, and such resistanceâ€”sometimes in the form of ambiguity, paradox, abstraction, or complexityâ€”strengthens our interest in and engagement with the poem. Poems are not necessarily answers, but they may be problems or questions.
[Key words: ambiguity, paradox.]