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Extent Should We Embrace Globalization Essay

Presentation on theme: "Key Issue #1: To What extent should we embrace globalization?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Key Issue #1: To What extent should we embrace globalization?
Chapter 2: Identity and the Forces of Globalization

2 What You Need to Know about This Weeks Work!
What is a Must Know? – Skim read the section and create point form notes that you feel might be important for an assignment, exam, quiz, etc. (Do this on the computer or in your notebook – this is for yourself to review)I will highlight in Red the work that you need to me by the end of the working week. (Due Dates will be linked to Power School)Feel free to ask me any questions that you may have!

3 Just to ClarifyRed items will be submitted to me, Ms. Smith, through .Red Items are due by the MONDAY of the following work week.Week 2 items will be due Week 3 on the Monday.Week 3 items will be due Week 4 on the Monday… and so on.

4 Chapter 2 IntroductionWhat Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PDay 1How do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity?/How do Some Forces of Globalization Provide Opportunities to Affirm and Promote Identity? PDay 2Focus on Skills: Detecting BiasDay 3Discussion: Does globalization have a positive or negative affect on identity?Day 4Knowledge Assessment: Mid-unit Review

5 Something to Think About
There are many words today that are used but are not in the dictionaryWhy do you think that is?Look up the word “glocal” on your electronic deviceWhat does this word mean?How does the globalizing world affect your everyday life and vice versa?

6 What Are Some Forces of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PExamine pages and perform the followingCreate your MUST KNOWSTask 1:You are going to create a chart that will analyze the forces and dimensions of globalization and critically think about how they influence identity (Use the Chart on the next slide as your template!) * me your finished copy!Forces of Globalization are:Trade, Transportation, Communication and MediaDimensions of Globalization are:Economic, Political, Environmental and Social

7 What Are Some Forces of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PForces of GlobalizationKey PointsHow it Shapes my IdentityHow my Identity Shapes itTradeTransportationCommunicationMediaDimensions of GlobalizationEconomicPoliticalEnvironmentalSocial

8 What Are Some Forces of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PTrade as a ForcePeople have always reached out to others to get goods that they cannot grow or make themselves, available in their regions, better quality, less expensive, different than what they can usually getGoods can be imported and exportedMany businesses are owned by transnational corporationsA company that is based in one country while developing products, goods and services in anotherTransnational Corporations provide jobs and services to many different countriesBut these might be low level jobsRevenue from the product/service may be sent to the base country

9 What Are Some Forces of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PTransportation as a ForceTransportation is essential for tradeToday transportation can move more goods faster than ever beforeThe evolution of the shipping containerLow transport costs make it economically sensible for countries to produce and ship productsDevelopment of transportation technology also has made it more economically efficientThe more efficient transportation is, the faster globalization can spread

10 Communication as a Force
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PCommunication as a ForceThe computer revolutionized how information is shippedThe creation of the Internet increased the connection of the worldBusinesses can now seek suppliers and customers easilyGoods are much cheaper because of competitionWith PDAs you can easily be part of the economic process

11 What Are Some Forces of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PMedia as a ForceWith the creation of the world wide web, the importance of interactive communication technology has become a part of every day lifeMedia has easier access to youMedia concentration and convergence have changed the way many media services operatePrint and broadcast media work togetherBut this may reduce the number of media sources and reduce the number of voices in media

12 Economic Dimension of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PEconomic Dimension of GlobalizationPrice is often a determining factor in buying decisionsLower the price the better the popularity of the productMany economic factors contribute to pricesEconomies of scale-producing large amounts of goods to sellIs supply greater than demand?Control of the trade process of goodsWhere can they find cheap labor?

13 Political Dimension of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PPolitical Dimension of GlobalizationEconomic concerns can often affect political decisionsCountries need to be involved in transnational corporations to keep prices competitiveCountries that offer special treatment to transnational corporations may get business over othersReduced tariffs, cheap labor, turn a bling eye…The World Trade Organization can often have a say in political polices…The Banana Wars

14 Environmental Dimension of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PEnvironmental Dimension of GlobalizationEnvironmental considerations are often linked to economic developmentThe Earth SummitAwareness of environmental issuesThe cost of producing goods on the environmentAffects on biodiversity, sustainability of production, impact on wild life

15 Social Dimension of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PSocial Dimension of GlobalizationAll three dimensions come together to create the social dimensionHow the wants and needs of the society are metThe health of the societyThe economic health of the societySafety conditions of the societyHow it impacts the lifestyle of the society

16 What Are Some Forces of Globalization
What Are Some Forces of Globalization?/How is Identity Affected by Some Economic, Political, Environmental and Social Dimensions of Globalization? PQuick Review (For your own notes – does not need to be submitted to me)Brainstorm Page- Choose one force/dimension of globalization. On a sheet of paper/computer please highlight the key points of the topic, how your identity shapes it and how your identity is affected.Use words, sentences, and images to represent your thoughts!

17 How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity
How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity?/ How Do Some Forces of Globalization Provide Opportunities to Affirm and Promote Identity PgSomething to Think About…Imagine that the Australians have suddenly become a dominate world power and have control over all of the countries in the world. Part of their control requires that every culture become Australian. There are no longer any other cultures allowed in the world. Your language is Australian (including accents), your hobbies are Australian (hunting dingos and riding kangaroos), your food is Australian (fried platypus and alligator roast), and all aspects of your identity must become Australian (language, culture, traditions, beliefs and values).What are some opportunities this Aussie take over presents to identity?What are some challenges?

18 Examining the Issue T-Chart
How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity?/ How Do Some Forces of Globalization Provide Opportunities to Affirm and Promote Identity PgExamining the IssueIndividually create your MUST KNOWSWhat is acculturation, homogenization, accommodation and assimilation?T-ChartYou are going to create a T-chart that will examine the challenges and opportunities that globalization presents to identity.How does globalization promote identity?How does it challenge and destroy identity?

19 How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity
How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity?/ How Do Some Forces of Globalization Provide Opportunities to Affirm and Promote Identity PgGlobalization could lead to the following…Homogenization: the erasing of differencesAcculturation: cultural changes that occur when two cultures accommodate or adapt to each others worldviewAccommodation: accepting and creating space for each cultureAssimilation: when a majority group absorbs a minority group and cultural identity disappearsIn any of these situations the language, cultures and traditions can be drastically affectedLanguages can disappearCultures can also disappear…

20 How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity
How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity?/ How Do Some Forces of Globalization Provide Opportunities to Affirm and Promote Identity PgGlobalization could lead to the following…Homogenization: the erasing of differencesAcculturation: cultural changes that occur when two cultures accommodate or adapt to each others worldviewAccommodation: accepting and creating space for each cultureAssimilation: when a majority group absorbs a minority group and cultural identity disappearsIn any of these situations the language, cultures and traditions can be drastically affectedLanguages can disappearCultures can also disappear…

21 How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity
How Do Some Forces of Globalization Present Challenges to Identity?/ How Do Some Forces of Globalization Provide Opportunities to Affirm and Promote Identity PgBut this may also provide some minority groups the opportunity to promote and affirm their cultureCulture revitalization may occurUse communication technology to promote their beliefs and values

22 Focus on Skills: Detecting Bias Pg. 56-57
“Globalization was created by the few for the many.”“Globalization has enabled individuals, corporations and nation-states to influence actions and events around the world-faster, deeper and cheaper than ever before-and equally to derive benefits from them”What similarities and differences do you notice between the two statements?

23 Focus on Skills: Detecting Bias Pg. 56-57
What are the steps to detecting bias?Read PgDetecting Bias ChartDetecting Bias Chart – Please me your completed chart. (Chart is linked in Week 2 Content)find an article that deals with this issue: The positives and negatives of globalizationComplete a Detecting Bias Chart on the article that you have found!

24 End of Chapter: Thinking About Your Challenge
Reflective Questions to Think About:What is your opinion on globalization so far? Is it beneficial to embrace globalization fully or should we monitor and control it?

25 What Needs to be Submitted?
Chart – Forces of Globalization/ Dimensions of GlobalizationDetecting Bias Chart



Peter D. Sutherland

The key difference between our era of globalization and the last one, which ended with the Great Depression, is that, for the first time, many companies are operating on a global basis. Although this change has raised fears among some people in both industrial and developing countries, it offers new and exciting opportunities for raising living standards worldwide.


The dramatic growth in cross-border investment and international trade over the past two decades, combined with the explosive growth in global communications and technology, is what most people think of when they think of globalization. Foreign direct investment (FDI) flows, which totaled $160 billion in 1991, soared to $1.1 trillion in 2000. And, while the volume of international trade also expanded dramatically (16-fold over the past 50 years), trade in components has grown even faster than trade in finished goods—components now make up about a third of world exports of manufactured goods, as firms increasingly outsource the parts they used to produce at home to subsidiaries or firms overseas.

Antiglobalization myths

Some antiglobalization campaigners find something intrinsically sinister in corporations' operating across borders. They seem to believe that, in general, multinational corporations care about nothing more than paying exploitation wages and avoiding taxes. The evidence, however, contradicts these generalizations: real wages have risen in the countries that are attracting FDI, and corporate tax revenues have been rising, not falling. Moreover, the local presence of internationally active companies creates strong pressures to raise local standards rapidly in the key areas of management, technology, and environmental quality and thus enables the host country to participate more effectively in globalization. I am convinced that the vast majority of multinationals conduct their affairs properly. (There are exceptions, of course, but that is what they are.)

The real problem with globalization, contrary to the myths dear to its staunchest opponents, is that the richest countries account for the lion's share of the increase in cross-border investment and trade. All of the developing countries taken together—including the six big Southeast Asian exporters—attracted just over 20 percent of last year's total FDI and accounted for only 27 percent of world exports of manufactures. And the longer developing countries lag behind, as global supply chains become more sophisticated and complex, the harder it becomes for their companies to operate on a global scale.

Many policymakers, business leaders, and ordinary citizens in developing countries are well aware of the need to engage wholeheartedly in globalization. A recent poll conducted by the World Economic Forum found that the peoples of countries like China and India have positive opinions of globalization. They recognize that openness is vital to raising living standards and offers greater choices and more freedom.

Indeed, freer trade offers unprecedented scope to exploit comparative advantage, not only in finished goods but all along the production chain. Moreover, in addition to bringing economic gains to countries that engage in it, trade is also a channel for importing good policies because it undermines inefficient and corrupt practices, thereby improving the business environment. John Stuart Mill argued in Principles of Political Economy that "the economical advantages of commerce are surpassed in importance by those of its effects, which are intellectual and moral. . . ."

Trade barriers

So it is not surprising that developing countries keen to expand their export and investment links are determined to achieve a more level playing field in world trade. These countries played an important role in the World Trade Organization (WTO) talks in Doha, in November 2001, rightly demanding that the powerful trading blocs live up to their own free-trade rhetoric in terms of granting them market access in protected sectors, such as agriculture and textiles.

The launch of the new round of talks is a welcome achievement, especially against the turbulent geopolitical background of the past 12 months. One of the most important responsibilities now facing Western trade negotiators and politicians is freeing up trade in key sectors in ways that will benefit developing countries, but the will to do so is less in evidence today than it was in Doha. U.S. President George W. Bush's decision to protect inefficient U.S. steelmakers and increase farm subsidies substantially is not encouraging (although one must acknowledge that the United States has been the driving force of the global economy for some years, thanks to a largely open trading policy).

Critics of the WTO who claim that the multilateral trading system is stacked unfairly against the developing countries have plenty of other ammunition. To take just one example, last year, the United States levied $1.6 billion in tariffs on auto imports—mainly from other countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development—worth $110 billion. This was just a shade less than the tariff revenues it raised on a mere $15 billion worth of shoe imports, mainly from poorer countries. The European Union's continuing reluctance to reform its Common Agricultural Policy, which effectively keeps farm products from poor countries out of Europe's markets, is equally troubling.

However, the WTO's critics have overlooked a crucial point—that is, trade barriers are as harmful to the countries that impose them as to the countries whose imports they block. For example, the United States' new protectionist stance in the steel and agricultural sectors will hit American consumers of automobiles and farm products—who far outnumber steel and agricultural workers—with higher prices. The real trade wars take place within countries, between consumers and special interest groups. Trade between countries brings mutual benefits. Those who genuinely wish to reduce barriers between rich and poor should strongly espouse free-trade policies and expose those special interests (for example, steel, textiles, and agriculture) that urge ultimately self-defeating protectionist measures.

Actions for poor countries

But even if rich countries reduce their trade barriers, poor countries will not benefit unless they stop protecting and overregulating their own markets. High tariffs make imported goods much dearer and, in many cases, have cosseted domestic industries to such an extent that few of them could compete effectively in the world market even if all tariffs were abolished overnight. One of the important aspects of trade liberalization is that it increases competition, the lifeblood of a successful market economy. Another is that it combats the corruption that flourishes wherever there are too much red tape and protectionism.

In the end, individual nations bear most of the responsibility for their own success or failure. While good government does not guarantee economic success, bad government does assure failure. And there has been a lot of very bad government in poor countries. Corruption and war, bandit elites, and the strangulation of any incentives to enterprise are responsible for much of the poverty and desperation that afflict poor countries. Excessive and intrusive regulation and protectionism are also the enemies of greater economic opportunity and freedom.

Trade talks

Developing countries thus face enormous challenges. But if globalization has magnified the penalties for failure, it has also increased the rewards for success. The opportunities for gains from freer trade and increased investment are greater than ever. It has therefore never been more important for nations to recognize their interdependence. And there is no better vehicle for advancing mutual self-interest than multilateral trade relationships.

The reduction of trade barriers in much of the world since the late 1940s has been the cornerstone of growth and prosperity. It is vital that this process continue within the proven multilateral framework, which not only allows for the balancing of different national interests and the widest distribution of the benefits of trade but also assures businesses that operating across borders will get easier over time and therefore provides a stable context for making investment decisions.

It is right to focus now on enabling developing countries to play a bigger part in the multilateral talks. Their needs have too often been overlooked. The European Union's Everything But Arms initiative is a step in the right direction. The Doha development agenda itself will go a long way toward redressing the imbalance. The WTO has also made great capacity-building efforts to ensure that developing countries can overcome their technical weaknesses in the course of the negotiations.

This is not to say that opening their markets to developing countries relieves the rich of their obligation to help the poor through aid and debt relief—indeed, these must be increased—but to drive home the point that trade and investment are the keys to development and that we should therefore embrace, not oppose, globalization.



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