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Unit 18 Sports Injuries Assignment 2 Operations

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport ... The first part of this unit concentrates on the importance of injury prevention, and looks at the main factors that can lead to ... 2 Know about a range of sports injuries and their symptoms.

Unit 18:

Sports Injuries

Unit code:


QCF Level 3:

BTEC National

Credit value:


Guided learning hours: 60 Aim and purpose The aim of this unit is to provide learners with an overview of injury prevention, identification and basic treatment. The unit also explores differing rehabilitatory interventions for common sports injuries.

Unit introduction Injuries are often a common occurrence for those participating in sport. It is therefore important that those involved in sport gain an appreciation of the main factors that can cause injuries, as well as those that can play a part in preventing them, and how effective treatment and rehabilitation can reduce the amount of time spent out of normal participation. Some risk factors are integral to participation and cannot be removed, so learners need to appreciate both the physiological and psychological mechanisms of injury, in terms of its occurrence, treatment and subsequent rehabilitation. Whilst this unit is not designed to make learners into accomplished therapists, it does provide a basic understanding of how injury occurs, and what can be done to help promote recovery. The first part of this unit concentrates on the importance of injury prevention, and looks at the main factors that can lead to injuries occurring, or to a performer being predisposed to suffering an injury. Having identified these risk factors, learners will then look at the different methods used to minimise risk. Learners who enter the sports industry will undoubtedly encounter the issue of sports injuries in some capacity, from maintaining safety within a sporting environment to suffering some form of injury themselves. The second part of this unit will help provide learners with a greater understanding of the problems associated with injury prevention, and build on existing knowledge of how to recognise the onset of injury.

Learning outcomes On completion of this unit a learner should:


Know how common sports injuries can be prevented by the correct identification of risk factors


Know about a range of sports injuries and their symptoms


Know how to apply methods of treating sports injuries


Be able to plan and construct treatment and rehabilitation programmes for two common sports injuries.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009


Unit content 1 Know how common sports injuries can be prevented by the correct identification of risk factors Extrinsic risk factors: coaching, eg poor coaching/leadership, communication, ensuring adherence to rules and governing body guidelines; incorrect technique, eg lifting and handling equipment; environmental factors, eg weather effects on surfaces; clothing and footwear, eg protective, sport-specific, specific to surface; safety hazards, eg the importance of safety checks, environment safety checks, equipment safety checks, misuse of equipment, first-aid provision, safety checklists, risk assessments Intrinsic risk factors: training effects, eg muscle imbalance, poor preparation, level of fitness, overuse; individual variables, eg age, fitness level, growth development, previous injury history, flexibility, nutrition, sleep; postural defects, eg lordosis, kyphosis, scoliosis, overuse Preventative measures: role of the coach, eg up-to-date knowledge of sport/performer, qualifications, adapt coaching style to performers ability/age/fitness level, communication; equipment and environment, eg checking equipment, risk assessments, protective equipment, appropriate usage

2 Know about a range of sports injuries and their symptoms Physiological responses: damaged tissue, eg primary damage response, healing response, the clotting mechanism; the importance of scar tissue control in the re-modelling process; specific to injury, eg sprain/ strain (signs and symptoms of first, second and third degree), haematomas (inter/intra) Psychological responses: response to injury, eg anger, anxiety, depression, frustration, isolated from team mates; response to treatment and rehabilitation, eg anxiety, frustration, need for motivation, use of goal setting

3 Know how to apply methods of treating sports injuries Types of sports injury: hard tissue damage, eg fracture, dislocation, stress fracture, shin splints; soft tissue damage, eg haematoma, abrasion, sprain, strain, concussion, tendonitis (achilles, shoulder), tendon rupture, blister, cramp, tennis elbow, back pain, cartilage damage, friction burns First aid: emergency/immediate treatment, eg priorities, resuscitation, shock, bleeding, unconscious casualty, fractures, prevention of infection, summon qualified assistance, accident report forms Common treatments: eg PRICED – protect, rest, ice, compression, elevation, diagnosis by professional, SALTAPS – (stop, ask, look, touch, active, passive strength), taping, bandaging, tubigrip, splints, hot/cold treatments, pain sprays limb supports, electrotherapy; medical referrals for specialist help as appropriate


Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009

4 Be able to plan and construct treatment and rehabilitation programmes for two common sports injuries Treatment: based on accurate diagnosis, eg immediate and long term, use of specialist help and advice Rehabilitation: identification of stages of rehabilitation, eg stages 1-5, acute stage to re-establishing functional activity, strengthening exercises, on-going treatments, gradual increase in activity Programme: methods to improve the lost range of motion, eg flexibility stretching (passive, active, proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation – PNF); strengthening and co-ordination exercises; psychological considerations during rehabilitation, eg goal setting (short-term, long-term); the need for a careful structured approach to rehabilitation, eg motivation and anxiety within the rehabilitation programme; recording documentation and tracking of treatment, eg medical conditions, allergies, injury history, up-todate and accurate information, appropriate forms, timescales and review dates, measurable objectives

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009


Assessment and grading criteria In order to pass this unit, the evidence that the learner presents for assessment needs to demonstrate that they can meet all the learning outcomes for the unit. The assessment criteria for a pass grade describe the level of achievement required to pass this unit. Assessment and grading criteria To achieve a pass grade the evidence must show that the learner is able to:

To achieve a merit grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass criteria, the learner is able to:

To achieve a distinction grade the evidence must show that, in addition to the pass and merit criteria, the learner is able to:


describe extrinsic and intrinsic M1 explain how risk factors can risk factors in relation to be minimised by utilisation of sports injuries preventative measures


describe preventative measures that can be taken in order to prevent sports injuries occurring


describe the physiological responses common to most sports injuries


describe the psychological responses common to sports injuries


describe first aid and common treatments used for four different types of sports injury


design a safe and appropriate M3 independently design a safe D2 treatment and rehabilitation and appropriate treatment programme for two common and rehabilitation programme sports injuries, with tutor for two common sports support. injuries. [IE1, IE2, IE4, TW1, TW4, EP4, RL5]

M2 explain the physiological and psychological responses common to most sports injuries


analyse the physiological and psychological responses common to most sports injuries

evaluate the treatment and rehabilitation programme designed, justifying the choices and suggesting alternatives where appropriate.

PLTS: This summary references where applicable, in the square brackets, the elements of the personal, learning and thinking skills applicable in the pass criteria. It identifies opportunities for learners to demonstrate effective application of the referenced elements of the skills.



IE – independent enquirers

RL – reflective learners

SM – self-managers

CT – creative thinkers

TW – team workers

EP – effective participators

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009

Essential guidance for tutors Delivery Tutors delivering this unit should use as wide a range of techniques as possible, such as lectures, discussions, seminar presentations, practical workshops, video/live practical sessions/performances, external visits and visiting speakers. Delivery should stimulate, motivate, educate and enthuse learners. Whichever delivery methods are used, it is essential that tutors stress the importance of injury prevention being the first and foremost priority and that treatment and subsequent rehabilitation programmes are ultimately a necessity for those injuries that are not preventable by nature. It should be emphasised that learners will not become qualified sports injury specialists or qualified first-aiders without additional study outside of, and in addition, to this unit. Risk assessment is vital to any sports environment and ultimately to any person involved within the sports industry. This should be reinforced throughout the delivery of this unit, as it is envisaged that learners undertaking this qualification will be involved in some capacity with sport already, and are considering progressing further within the industry. Tutors should consider timing the delivery of this unit with related units within this and/or other qualifications. As the content of the unit shows, there is scope for good contextualised linkage to other areas such as anatomy, physiology, coaching, equipment and facilities, health and safety, instructing, leadership/leading, organising, practical sport, psychology, work experience, biomechanics, training and fitness and sports massage. The Unit content areas on the relationship between identification of risk factors and prevention of sports injuries are closely linked. Delivery techniques should look to incorporate theory with practice as much as possible. Learners should have the opportunity to undertake risk assessments of sports facilities/environments, and watch coaching sessions or competitive performances in order to identify issues relating to both learning outcomes. It is expected that formal lectures, discussions and presentations by learners will form part of the delivery of the unit. The content covering the treatment of injury will require formal delivery and, wherever possible, learners should be encouraged to put theory into practice, using role play and practical workshops. Although it is not a requirement for this unit, it is possible that treatment of injury may be covered by undertaking a recognised first aid qualification. The Unit content covering the planning and construction of treatment and rehabilitation programmes aims to build upon the knowledge gained in the three previous outcomes and to look further into injury management and recovery to full fitness. Much of the delivery should take place via formal lectures, and would enable learners to research into the advancement of treatment and rehabilitation techniques, via primary sources wherever possible. The use of visiting speakers such as sports therapists, physiotherapists, sports coaches and performers who have experienced injury should highlight the importance of the Unit content in relation to the ‘real world’ of sport, and help bring the unit to a rounded conclusion. Visits to appropriate environments (a sports injury clinic based in the NHS, local sports facilities or professional sports grounds) could also support the unit. Tutors should guide learners to select two different injuries as the focus for the treatment and rehabilitation programmes, in order to maximise their potential to achieve the higher grading criteria.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009


Outline learning plan The outline learning plan has been included in this unit as guidance and can be used in conjunction with the programme of suggested assignments. The outline learning plan demonstrates one way in planning the delivery and assessment of this unit. Topic and suggested assignments/activities and/assessment Introduction and overview of the unit. Assignment 1: Prevention of Sports Injuries (P1, P2, M1). Tutor introduces the assignment brief.

Identification of the different types of risk factors and their associated preventative measures using formal input combined with practical activities to possibly include risk assessment, role plays, etc. Assignment 2: Common Sports Injuries – Symptoms and Treatment (P3, P4, P5, M2, D1). Tutor

introduces the assignment brief.

Physiological response to injury: tissue response in general and related to common sports injuries – using group discussion, film footage in conjunction with formal input. Identification of common injury treatment for physiological responses: emergency first aid and basic first aid techniques to help with the physiological response to injury – learner practical activities, techniques, and role play. Psychological response to injury: participants’ response to treatment and rehabilitation of sustained injury – consideration of a range of techniques to help participants deal with these issues. Identification of techniques when dealing with common psychological responses to injury treatment and rehabilitation – group discussion and individual research. Assignment 3: Injury Rehabilitation Programmes (P6, M3, D2). Tutor introduces the assignment brief.

Treatment and rehabilitation: identification of acknowledged procedures with opportunities for learners to engage in practical activities to increase range of movement. Recording injury and treatment through to full recovery: group discussion as to importance and methods of how to manage successfully. Treatment and rehabilitation programmes: opportunity for formal input, group work and individual research providing learners with sufficient information to develop two different programmes. Review of reflective practice of unit and assessment.


Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009

Assessment For P1, learners will be expected to be able to describe extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors as listed in the Unit content. For P2, learners will be expected to correctly describe sports injury prevention methods as identified in the Unit content. It is possible that criteria P1 and P2 could be assessed via a booklet produced by learners describing risk factors and the related preventative methods for them. The depth of information given in the booklet would indicate whether or not learners had sufficient coverage to meet grading criterion M1, which requires explanation of how risk factors can be minimised by adopting preventative measures. The content would need to explain the relationship rather than purely describe the issues related to criteria P1 and P2. Criteria P3 and P4 aim to address the issue of occurrence of sports injuries and the resulting symptoms, both physiologically and psychologically, as identified within the related content of the unit. If an explanation of both issues is detailed and contextualised sufficiently to the concept of sports injury then it is possible that grading criterion M2 and D1 (analysis) may also be achieved. It may be possible to assess this via the booklet mentioned previously, or for learners to give a presentation on the issues, supported by a tutor witness statement/observation record to confirm achievement. For P5, learners must describe first aid and common treatments used for four different types of sports injury. For P6, learners must select two specific sports injuries and plan safe and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation programmes accordingly, with tutor support. Tutors may provide advice and guidance on selection of injuries to be covered by learners. The injuries selected should be done so with care and reasoned thought, as appropriate selection will provide scope for learners to cover the range of criteria P6, M3 and D2. A poor selection, for example a simple bruise, which needs little treatment and hardly any rehabilitation, limits the research available to learners. However, a fracture of the tibia and fibula or the rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament allows for depth of evidence and the use of primary sources. The treatment and rehabilitation programme designed can be presented in any format. However, as specified in the Unit content, it should clearly state the treatment and rehabilitation, methods to improve the lost range of motion, strengthening and coordination exercises, psychological considerations, the need for a carefully structured approach to rehabilitation and relevant documentation and tracking of the treatment and rehabilitation programme.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009


Programme of suggested assignments The table below shows a programme of suggested assignments that cover the pass, merit and distinction criteria in the assessment and grading grid. This is for guidance and it is recommended that centres either write their own assignments or adapt any Edexcel assignments to meet local needs and resources. Criteria covered

Assignment title


Assessment method

P1, P2, M1

Prevention of Sports Injuries

Having gained a work placement with a sports physiotherapist, you identify risk factors relating to sports performance and their associated preventative measures.

Presentation and witness statement, or booklet.

Research common sports injuries with practical exploration of basic sports injury treatment.

Practical observations and assessment.

P3, P4, P5, M2, D1 Common Sports Injuries – Symptoms and Treatment

P6, M3, D2


Injury Rehabilitation Programmes

Observation record. Written report.

You have had opportunity Written report. to observe a number of treatments and rehabilitation programmes in progress. Plan a rehabilitation programme for two different types of common sports injuries.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009

Links to National Occupational Standards, other BTEC units, other BTEC qualifications and other relevant units and qualifications This unit forms part of the BTEC Sport sector suite and the BTEC Sport and Exercise Sciences sector suite. This unit has particular links with the following unit titles in the BTEC Sport suite and the BTEC Sport and Exercise Sciences suite: Level 2 Sport

Level 3 Sport

Level 3 Sport and Exercise Sciences

Anatomy and Physiology for Sport

Principles of Anatomy and Physiology in Sport

Anatomy for Sport and Exercise

Effects of Exercise on the Body Systems

The Physiology of Fitness

Sport and Exercise Physiology

Planning and Leading Sports Activities

Fitness Testing for Sport and Exercise

Fitness Testing for Sport and Exercise

Practical Sport

Assessing Risk in Sport

Fitness Training and Programming

Outdoor and Adventurous Activities

Fitness Training and Programming

Instructing Physical Activity and Exercise

Exercise and Fitness Instruction

Sports Coaching

Sports Injuries

Sport and Leisure Facility Operations

Outdoor and Adventurous Activities Sports Coaching

Leading Outdoor and Adventurous Activities

Instructing Physical Activity and Exercise

Outdoor and Adventurous Activities

Expedition Experience

Exercise for Specific Groups

Exercise for Specific Groups

Work Experience in the Sports Industry

Sports Injuries

Work Experience in Sport

Organising Sports Events

Sport and Exercise Massage

Equipment and Facilities for Outdoor and Adventurous Activities Skills for Land-based Outdoor and Adventurous Activities Skills for Water-based Outdoor and Adventurous Activities Work Experience in Sport Sport and Exercise Massage

This unit links with the National Occupational Standards (NOS) for: ●

Achieving Excellence in Sports Performance at Level 3

Coaching, Teaching and Instructing at Level 3

Instructing Physical Activity and Exercise at Level 3.

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009


Essential resources Learners will need access to information on current sports injury research and issues, including treatment and rehabilitation strategies.

Employer engagement and vocational contexts This unit focuses on the practical aspects of sports injury prevention, identification and rehabilitation and will give learners the background knowledge and some important skills needed to work in a sports environment. Centres are encouraged to develop links with sports therapists, physiotherapists and coaches. This could be via talks, first aid courses, practical treatment workshops, or visits to sports facilities to look at risk assessment and preventative measures.

Indicative reading for learners Textbooks

Anderson M K – Fundamentals of Sports Injury Management (Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003) ISBN 9780781732727 Dalgleish J et al – The Health and Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001) ISBN 9780582418790 Flegel M J – Sport First Aid (Human Kinetics Europe Ltd, 2008) ISBN 9780736076012 Gill W – Practical Guide to Sports First Aid (Lotus Publishing, 2004) ISBN 9780954318864 Shamus E – Sport Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation (McGraw-Hill Education, 2001) ISBN 9780071354752 Journals

American College of Sport Medicine’s Health and Fitness Journal British Journal of Sports Medicine British Medical Journal Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching Journal of Athletic Training Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Peak Performance Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport Sports Injury Bulletin


Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009






Peak Performance


Sports Coach UK


Sports Coach


Sports Injury Clinic


Sports Medicine


Top End Sports


Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009


Delivery of personal, learning and thinking skills The table below identifies the opportunities for personal, learning and thinking skills (PLTS) that have been included within the pass assessment criteria of this unit. Skill

When learners are …

Independent enquirers

designing a safe and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation programme for two common sports injuries, with tutor support

Reflective learners

designing a safe and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation programme for two common sports injuries, with tutor support

Team workers

designing a safe and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation programme for two common sports injuries, with tutor support

Effective participators

designing a safe and appropriate treatment and rehabilitation programme for two common sports injuries, with tutor support.

Although PLTS are identified within this unit as an inherent part of the assessment criteria, there are further opportunities to develop a range of PLTS through various approaches to teaching and learning. Skill

When learners are …

Independent enquirers

researching different risk factors and preventative measures researching physiological and psychological responses to injury researching common types of injury and methods of treatment researching rehabilitation techniques and programmes

Creative thinkers

presenting research findings relating to injury prevention producing two rehabilitation programmes

Reflective learners

evaluating the rehabilitation programmes devised analysing the responses to common injuries

Team workers

discussing the treatment of sports injuries via role play

Effective participators

discussing the treatment of sports injuries via role play.


Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009

Functional Skills – Level 2 Skill

When learners are …

ICT – Use ICT systems Select, interact with and use ICT systems independently for a complex task to meet a variety of needs

researching preventative measures, common sports injuries and their associated responses, rehabilitation programmes and techniques and identifying appropriate treatment for common injuries

Use ICT to effectively plan work and evaluate the effectiveness of the ICT system they have used

planning a presentation on the prevention of sports injuries planning two programmes for differing sports injuries

ICT – Find and select information Select and use a variety of sources of researching preventative measures, common sports injuries information independently for a complex task and their associated responses, rehabilitation programmes and techniques and identifying appropriate treatment for common injuries ICT – Develop, present and communicate information Enter, develop and format information independently to suit its meaning and purpose including: ●

text and tables




Present information in ways that are fit for purpose and audience

planning a presentation on the prevention of sports injuries planning two programmes for differing sports injuries

designing an appropriate presentation method for presenting research findings on the prevention of injury

English Speaking and listening – make a range of contributions to discussions and make effective presentations in a wide range of contexts

assessing a casualty and giving appropriate instruction during treatment of injury

Reading – compare, select, read and understand texts and use them to gather information, ideas, arguments and opinions

researching preventative measures, common sports injuries and their associated responses, rehabilitation programmes and techniques and identifying appropriate treatment for common injuries

Writing – write documents, including extended writing pieces, communicating information, ideas and opinions, effectively and persuasively

preparing a presentation on sports prevention

Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Nationals specification in Sport – Issue 1 – January 2010 © Edexcel Limited 2009

presenting findings on prevention of sports injuries

producing a report on responses to injury and two rehabilitation programmes.


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...Every school year, millions of students participate in school sports. Participating in school sports has grown from an estimate 4 million students playing a sport in the early 1970's to about 7.7 million in 2011. Unfortunately school principals, athletic directors and coaches cannot guarantee that students will remain accident free while participating in any sport. In today's litigious world, schools, and staff can be subject to a lawsuit. Over the past few decades, more tort cases have been filed. A tort concerns civil wrongs and address the duty, breach and injury sustained to one individual as a result of another's conduct. The premise is that a person who is injured could be able to recover something from the person who injured him or her. Usually, in a tort case, injured parties typically seek monetary damages. In an educational setting, tort law is the prevalent area of the law that subjects educators to personal liability. There are a variety of torts, which can basically be divided into three types of torts: (1) intentional torts, the intent to do harm to a person, (2) negligent torts, no intent to do harm to a person but to fail to exercise proper care and (3) strict liability, actions that causes damages regardless if the person is not at fault or negligent. Of the three categories, intentional and negligent torts tend to be more common types of tort actions in school sports settings. However, the vast majority of tort liabilities......

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Unit 18

...| Department of BusinessIn conjunction with Edexcel | Edexcel BTEC Level 3 Extended Diploma in Business | Assessment Information | Unit No & Name: | Unit 27: Health and Safety in the Workplace level 3 | Lecturers/Assessor Name: | Rachel Adedeji | Date Set: | w/c Sept 2014 | Assignment Name: | 1 of 2 Health and Safety in the Workplace | Submission Date: | w/c Nov 2014 | | | Edexcel Unit Code | H/502/5458 | Assessment Type: | Internal (Portfolio) | Unit Credit Value | 10 | Internal Standardisation | Assignment Brief | Assessments | Author: | Maxine Halford | Assessor 1 | | Internal Verifier: | | Assessor 2 | | Date: | Sept 2014 | Internal Verifier(s): | | Assessment Resources | Document/File | Name of Document/File | VLE | Network | Assignment Brief: | Unit 27: Health and Safety in the Workplace | | | Unit Specification: | See VLE or Edexcel.com\Qualifications | | | Feedback Header Sheet: | CF015 will be attached for formative and summative feedback | | | Learning Outcomes relevant to assignment linked to:- | 1 Understand how health and safety legislation and regulations affect a business working environment | 2 Know the requirements for healthy, safe and productive working conditions | 3 Understand the role and responsibilities of key personnel | | Level 3Unit 24: Aspects of Criminal Law Relating to Business (10)Unit 26: Managing Business Information (10) | Tasks | Task Submission Dates | Task 1 a-c P1Task 2......

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Unit 18 Task 4

...Unit 18 Task 4 [M1] Before hosting an event there are a number of organisation and legal procedures that you have to prepare before you can host your event otherwise you can be liable to be potentially shut down or worse yet sued. In the case of the music tech festival we recently hosted in the City of Bath College on May the 15th we had to prepare a risk assessment for a number of reasons, firstly it is important to identify all the possible risks to attendees, staff and nearby citizens, it is important to do this so that we can reduce risk of injury to anyone involved within the event and it is also helpful to have a risk assessment if in the worst case scenario somebody does get injured you can have precautions to take in order to get them the help they need quickly and efficiently. The aim of the risk assessment process is to remove a hazard or reduce the level of its risk by adding precautions or control measures, as necessary. By doing so, you have created a safer and healthier workplace. A risk assessment is a justified precaution for a various of reasons, risk assessments are very important as they are the backbone of health and safety, they are a very integral part of a advanced occupational health and safety management plan. Risk assessments are a justified precaution with many positive impacts as they help to create awareness of hazard and risks and also identify who may be at risk. For example employees, cleaners visitors, contractors and the public. Risk......

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Unit 18

...control, maybe next time we should pick an event that is more suited to the season that it will take place. Paintballing for example should have probably been organised around the spring time where is wouldn't be too wet or cold. Or perhaps maybe we should have focused on an indoor event at the time. Another problem that occurred was that the coach was very late which made us late to the event. If it was a real business event, we would look extremely unprofessional. Although the coach going to the wrong place was not our fault, next time we should phone up the company an hour before they are meant to pick us up just to confirm all the details so that there are no mix ups. There were a couple of minor injuries that came with paintballing but there was also quite an alarming injury to one of the students. The paintballing was quite hazardous to those who played and some people couldn't participate. This is why I think that the next event we plan should be something that can fit around everyone's interest so that everyone can be a part of the physical event instead of just the planning side of it. To do this we could gather a few ideas from the group and create a list of the pros and cons to these activities so that we can get a good idea of what event would be best for everyone involved. Although the group performed really well when planning and organising this event, there were times when there were people missing on more than one occasion when we really needed them in......

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Btec Sport Cardiovascular System

...exercise our body temperature raises. When our bodies get hot we start to sweat and our skin becomes red. This is because the blood vessels in our body are vasodilating. This means that the blood vessels widen and get closer to the surface of the skin to allow heat out, this is why we sweat. The vessels diameter increases in order to decrease the resistance to the flow of blood to the area supplied by the vessels. When our bodies are cold they experience vasoconstriction. This is when the lumen of your blood vessels narrows and sinks deeper into your skin which results in your skin looking pale but your body maintaining more heat. Examples of when this may happens can be environmental factors like when it’s snowing. Sports that may causevasoconstriction are sports like surfing. This is because their bodies are covered in cold water so their vessels go deeper into their skin in order to keep the body warm. Blood Blood is used to transport materials around the body, regulation and to protect. The average adult has approximately 4-5 litres of blood. Blood has four main features including plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells of which there are different types and platelets or cell fragments. It also helps to maintain the body's temperature by absorbing and distributing heat. Red Blood Cells This includes red blood cells. Red cells contain haemoglobin, which helps carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body and then returns carbon dioxide from the body......

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Unit 18

...BTEC National Diploma Level 3 Unit 18 Managing a Business Event The Omega Dubai Ladies Masters Golf Tournament 2015 Meshary Ghouth P1: Describe the skills required of an event organiser. * Time management * Organization * Attention to detail * Ability to creatively solve problems * Flexibility * Leader ship * Determination * Communication * Cope with stress * Staying calm at all times This is my initial list of the skills required but an event organiser. Then we had a class choice to create the final list. Skills | Describe | * Time management | Time management Is a Key thing to have in an event organiser, you need to be able to stick to deadlines so that what you need to be done is done at the right time. Step by step plans and goals to make for each weak is a good idea to do when managing your time because you’re able to work off something and tick off the things that are done. | * Staying calm at all times | Sometimes you are hit with a lot of things at the same time when being an event manager, if you freak out, it’s really hard to focus on one thing at a time, staying calm will help you finish one thing at a time to the greatest of its extent. | * Organization | Organization is a crucial thing in being an event organizer, you need to be able to know what you’re doing each week and stick to the deadlines you give yourself or that is giving to you, also making sure that everything is......

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