Have you noticed that your writing in French is missing that je ne sais quoi ?
Do you want to move past simple translated English, but are having trouble finding a voice of your own in French?
This isn’t an uncommon problem for French learners.
After all, it’s one thing to understand what someone is saying, another to be able to communicate back, and yet another to find the degree of fluency that allows you to communicate with the same facility as you would in your native language.
Add to that the fact that writing in French is difficult even for native speakers of French, and you’ve got a whole lot of things to contend with as a French learner.
But don’t worry! There are quite a few tips and tricks we can share to help you elevate your French writing from pure translation to true innovation in French on the page.
“Hang on!,” some of you are saying. “I’m not translating my sentences—I’m writing directly in French!”
If that’s the case, that’s great! But you might still be translating without even knowing it.
The fact of the matter is that no two languages are ever written the same way; that’s why literary translation is such a tough gig.
What we mean by translating isn’t necessarily that you’re literally translating sentences from French to English, but more that you may be calquing what you already know in your native language onto your second language.
Phrased like that, this is kind of an abstract concept, so let’s take a look at three elements of writing style and structure that often pose problems for non-native speakers.
How to Write Strongly in French: 3 Advanced Elements to Focus On
Structuring a French text can be a bit off-putting for a native English speaker, because a text—in this case, we’ll talk about essays—won’t be structured the same way in French as it would be in English.
If you attended school in English, you likely learned to structure your ideas in a five-part essay. The five-part essay is made up of an introduction, three thematic parts and a conclusion. The introduction presents your ideas and thesis statement, the three parts provide three different pieces of evidence proving your thesis statement, and your conclusion rounds everything out.
Thesis, antithesis, synthesis
In French, a different structure is used, called thèse-antithèse-synthèseor thesis-antithesis-synthesis. This explanation in French is a great way to get a handle on it. Basically, the thesis-antithesis-synthesis model asks you to approach your argument in four parts, not five.
As in English, you begin with an introduction, but the introduction does not present your thesis statement. Rather, it presents context for your argument, which will follow.
Next, you have the thesis portion. This is where you not only present your thesis statement, but you also defend it. In other words, what an English writer would do over the course of three and a half parts of an essay is done in one part.
Following the thesis is the antithesis. This is the point in the essay where you present contrary evidence; you explain possible alternatives to your thesis. In other words, you play devil’s advocate.
The synthesis portion is kind of your conclusion, but you have one important task: You must explain and prove why your thesis still holds, even in the face of evidence to the contrary, presented in the antithesis portion of the essay.
This model is typically used by the very young, in middle school or high school.
A second model exists in French, one that is used once students are a bit older. In fact, a dissertation is the same model—albeit shorter—that French master’s and doctorate students are expected to use for their mémoire (master’s thesis) or thèse (doctoral dissertation). It’s no wonder there’s a link between the French word dissertation and the English word “dissertation”!
The dissertation resembles the more typical English three-part structure much more closely, with one big difference: Instead of putting a thesis statement at the end of your introduction, as you would in English, you poser un problématique (ask a question).
For instance, if you were writing an English essay proving that FluentU videos are the best tools to help you become fluent, your thesis statement might look something like this:
Watching FluentU videos is a very useful way to learn a foreign language and they may in fact be the most useful tool to achieve fluency.
In French, however, you would write the following:
Les vidéos de FluentU constituent-elles l’outil le plus efficace pour parler couramment une langue étrangère ?
(Are FluentU videos the most effective tool to become fluent in a foreign language?)
In the next parts of your essay, you would seek to answer this question, only typing out your thesis statement in the conclusion of your essay. This sort of logic is called Cartesian logic and stems from French philosopher Descartes, who approached philosophy from a very scientific angle.
2. Sentence Structure
Once you’ve gotten the structure of your essay squared away, the next problem you might encounter is sentence structure. French sentences and English sentences are not necessarily structured the same way, at least not ideally. While it’s possible to calque English sentence structure directly into French, there are a few techniques to make your sentences—for lack of a better term—more French.
Nominalization is an important technique for making your sentences sound more French. The word nominalization basically means “noun-ing.” In short, French sentences use more powerful nouns than English ones do; where English would use a powerful, meaningful verb, French uses a powerful, meaningful noun.
Let’s take a look at some examples:
In English, you might say:
Going to school is important.
In French, you couldsay, “Aller à l’école, c’est important,” or even, “C’est important d’aller à l’école.”
But you would be far more likely to see something like:
L’assiduité à l’école est importante.
(Attendance at school is important.)
Here’s another example. In English, you might read “He published the book in 1944” or “The book was published in 1994.” In French, you’d be more likely to write, “L’édition du livre s’est faite en 1944″ (The publication of the book was done in 1944)or “L’édition du livre a eu lieu en 1944″ (The publication of the book occurred in 1944).
Here are some great exercises for practicing nominalization of adjectives and verbs, and here are a few more examples of nominalization.
Appropriate sentence length
The abundance of conjunctions in French make it quite easy to go on and on. However, although long sentences seem very French, they’re best reserved for established writers or literary legends like Proust. The more modest among us should probably stick to shorter sentences that get our point across more readily.
A good rule of thumb is to limit your use of conjunctions in French to the bare minimum, thus having a greater number of shorter sentences.
Are your sentences are looking good? Great. Now let’s make them look even better!
With all of the short sentences that you have in French, you need to have good ways of linking them, and linking words are something that French is definitely not poor in.
Connecting words can be broken into several categories.
The simplest connecting words to use are coordinating conjunctions, words that simply show a relation between two ideas. There’s an easy mnemonic used to remember the coordinating conjunctions in French:
Mais où est donc Ornicar ? (But where, therefore, is Ornicar?)
And the coordinating conjunctions it reminds you of are:
- mais (but)
- ou (or)
- et (and)
- donc (so, therefore)
- or (yet, well)
- ni (neither)
- car (since, because)
This page gives you some great exercises for practicing use of coordinating conjunctions.
Connectors of causality
Other connectors show causality, words like puisque (because, since)and lorsque (when). These words are often used at the beginning of a sentence to introduce a link between two ideas that will follow, whereas in English, similar words are usually used in the middle of a sentence, after the first idea has already been introduced.
Her mother picked her up because her car had broken down.
Puisque ma voiture était en panne, ma mère est venue me chercher.
(Since my car was broken down, my mom came to pick me up.)
Introduction and conclusion words
The last category of words to encourage flow are words that introduce or conclude a part of your written work:
- tout d’abord (firstly)
- premièrement (firstly)
- deuxièmement (secondly)
- ensuite (then)
- enfin (finally)
- finalement (finally)
- pour conclure (to conclude)
These words are usually used in the first sentence of a paragraph that begins a new part of your essay or dissertation. The use of these words signals to your reader that they’re about to encounter a new thought or part of your argumentative process.
Writing in French is far from a mere matter of learning the words and the conjugation. Try to read as much as you can in French to get a feel for the structure and flow of the written language, and of course watch FluentU videos to get even more ideas on how to practice your newfound skills!
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Reading time: 2 minutesDifficulty: Intermediate
Are you struggling to write essays in French? In this article, I have shared a list of 30 useful French words and phrases that will help you create more sophisticated written arguments for your exam (at school or for DELF exam).
If you want to learn even more, check out one of my e-books here: Improving French Vocabulary (the most complete French Vocabulary e-book available).
I also offer an extended version of this blog post, (57 French phrases instead of just 30) saved as a PDF which you can print for daily use. Click on the button below.
|à la fin||in the end|
|à mon avis / quant à moi / selon moi||in my opinion|
|autrement dit||in other words|
|avant de conclure||before concluding...|
|bien que je puisse comprendre que||although I can understand that|
|cela va sans dire que||it goes without saying that|
|d’après moi||according to me|
|d’une part, d’autre part||on one hand, on the other hand|
|en ce qui concerne...||as far as ... is concerned|
|en outre||furthermore / moreover|
|enfin||finally, at last|
|grâce à||thanks to|
|il est donc question de||it is a matter of|
|il faut bien reconnaître que||it must be recognised that|
|il semble que les avantages l'emportent sur les inconvenients||it seems that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages|
|il serait absurde de dire que||it would be absurd to say that|
|il vaut mieux||it is better to|
|je crois que||i think/ believe that|
|je soutiens donc que||I maintain that|
|je suis contre||I am against|
|je voudrais souligner que||I’d like to underline that|
|la premiere constatation qui s'impose, c'est que||the first thing to be noted is that|
|ne… ni… ni||neither… nor|
|pas forcément la faute de||not necessarily the fault of|
|pour commencer||to start with|
|selon moi||according to me|
|tout bien considéré||all things considered|
If you are hungry for more, do not hesitate to take a look at my French language e-books and audio here. One of which is the most comprehensive French vocabulary e-book available in the market.
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Let me know which you find the most useful for you in the comments section.
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About the Author Frederic
Frederic Bibard is the founder of Talk in French, a company that helps french learners to practice and improve their french. Macaron addict. Jacques Audiard fan. You can contact him on Twitter and Google +