Presentation on theme: "Civil War DBQ p. 29 & 30."— Presentation transcript:
1 Civil War DBQ p. 29 & 30
2 Document 1 Compromise of 1850
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND: Until 1850, there were equal numbers of slave and free states in the United States. The Compromise of 1850 introduced into Congress by Henry Clay was designed to settle the slavery question arising from the new western lands acquired after the Mexican War. The Compromise gave some satisfaction to both the North and the South. The bill passed after it was divided into several parts: California enters the Union as a free state; Utah and New Mexico Territories are opened to slavery on the basis of popular sovereignty (i.e., territorial voters decide the issue); and the slave trade (but not slavery) is abolished in Washington D.C. It also included a strict fugitive slave law that required Northerners to return escaped slaves to their owners.
3 DOCUMENT 2 Civil War Graphs
4 DOCUMENT 3 Sectional Differences
Southern Cotton Plantation 1850sHISTORICAL BACKGROUND:"The sectional division between North and South began in colonial times and resulted from geographical differences. In the South, the earliest settlers found the warm climate and fertile soil ideal for growing tobacco. They started many tobacco plantations and brought in black slaves from Africa to provide most of the labor. In time, other plantation crops, especially cotton, sugar cane, and sugar beets, were found to thrive in the South. The South thus quickly established a rural way of life supported by an agricultural economy based on slave labor.The cooler climate and rocky soil in the North were not suitable for establishing plantations or large farms. As a result of those and other factors, the North's economy came to depend more on trade than on agriculture. Industry and commerce were centered in the North. Many factories using mass-production methods had sprung up there, and cities grew rapidly." The North developed an intricate railway system and shipping industry to transport the manufactured goods. Source: A-Z HistoryPittsburgh Factories 1850s
5 Uncle Tom's Cabin By Harriet Beecher Stowe Published in 1852
DOCUMENT 4 SlaveryHISTORICAL BACKGROUND:Harriet Beecher Stowe published the best-selling antislavery novel, Uncle Tom's Cabin, in She wrote this book to show that slavery was evil and that the Fugitive Slave Law was unjust. Many Northerners viewed slavery as wrong. Abolitionists wanted to end slavery and some helped slaves escape to the North and Canada. The Southerner's believed that they were stealing their property.Mrs. Webb's reading of Uncle Tom's Cabin was reviewed in Boston's The Liberator on December 15, 1855.Uncle Tom's Cabin By Harriet Beecher Stowe Published in 1852"Mrs. Webb read to an audience of 1300 persons. We trust that the story of 'Uncle Tom' may find access to thousands of hearts, and so hasten the day when the millions of whom he is the representative shall shake off the fetters (chains) of cruel bondage, and stand erect in the dignity of that freedom ."
6 DOCUMENT 5 Lincoln Elected President
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND:November 6, Abraham Lincoln, who had declared "Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free..." is elected president.Dec 20, South Carolina secedes from the Union. Followed within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas. Seven states of the Deep South, those in which the slavery system is most entrenched, leave the Union. Many Southerners favored secession as part of the idea that the states have rights and powers which the federal government cannot legally deny. The supporters of states' rights held that the national government was a league of independent states, any of which had the right to secede.
7 PART B: DBQ ESSAY DIRECTIONS:
Write a well organized essay that includes a strong introduction, body (topic and closing sentence for each paragraph), and conclusion that analyzes and interprets the assigned taskUse the information from the documents and the answers to the questions in Part A to support your responseDo not simply repeat the contents of the documentsInclude details, examples or reasons to develop your ideasUtilize specific related outside information (your knowledge of social studies)HISTORICAL CONTEXT: After the Constitution was adopted by all of the States in 1789, uniting the States into one nation, differences between the States had been worked out through compromises. For more than 30 years arguments between the North and South had been growing. By 1861 these differences between the Northern States (which included the Mid-Western and Western States) and the Southern States had become so great that compromise would no longer work. Thus, a conflict started within our nation that was called the Civil War ( ).TASK:Most historians agree that the Civil War was caused by series of events and growing differences between the States. Write an essay explaining three reasons the Southern states seceded (withdrew) from the Union which lead to the American Civil War.The Civil War began with the Confederate Attack on Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861
In 1782 Americans won their independence from Britain in the American Revolution. After the colonies won their independence, Americans created the Constitution. Its purpose was to replace the Articles of Confederation and solve its problems and more importantly to bring the states together under a single document creating a stronger union of all the states. During the period of 1850, until 1861 when the Confederate States of America was formed, the union was clearly divided between the North and South. Although the Constitution was not the only factor leading to sectional tension in America, there are many strong points in the North and South favoring the statement, “By the 1850’s the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord and tension and ultimately contributed to the failure of the union it had created.”It is known that the union did not last, for there was the Civil War.
If the majority of congressional leaders could agree on what the constitution implied, then there probably would not have been a civil war. From several of the documents, there are arguments about what the constitution states. “To the Argument, that the word ‘slaves’ and ‘slavery’ are not to be found in The Constitution, and therefore it was never intended to give any protection or countenance to the slave system, it is sufficient to reply, that no such words are continued in the instrument, other words were used, intelligently and specifically, to meet the necessities of slavery.” Ralph Waldo Emerson, address on the fugitive slave law. This indicated the constitution can be interpreted differently, and when used with other pertinent documents, can be incongruous. Those views that differentiated were of those in the North and South. The Constitution can be interpreted in many different ways, which leads to sectional discord and tension. For many reasons, the South evidently did not like what the constitution said.
There were many conflictions with the compromise of 1850, shown on the map with the United States territories and the fugitive slave act. Certain northerners were so against slavery and the fugitive slave act that they even posted caution signs for the slaves. It shows how kidnappers were being sent after the slaves, and how Northern abolitionists were revolting against the South’s rules and regulations. This fugitive slave act also helped drive the tension deeper into the United States. When the idea of popular sovereignty came about with the compromise of 1850 Freesoilers in office were pushed harder into complex decisions over the popular sovereignty issue.
“FORCING SLAVERY DOWN THE THROAT OF A FREESOILER,” illustrates in a very blatant text and disturbing political cartoon although being okay with slavery in the state, many including Buchanan and Steven Douglas make it seem as if slavery is the only way to go. All of the tension gathering, authors were predestining the Civil War. Ralph Waldo Emerson believed that the Constitution, when assorted with others like the fugitive slave law or the compromise of 1850, were contradictory, and that they aid to the now inevitable seeming end of the union.
“What kind of legislation is this? What kind of constitution which covers? … I suppose the union can be left to take care of itself….But one thing appears certain to me, that , as soon as the constitution ordains an immoral law, it ordains disunion. The law is suicidal, and cannot be obeyed. The union is at an end as soon as an immoral law is enacted. And he who writes a crime into the statute-book digs under the foundations of the capitol to plant there a powder-magazine, and lays a train” This proves that By the 1850’s the Constitution, originally framed as an instrument of national unity, had become a source of sectional discord and tension and ultimately contributed to the failure of the union it has created. This was shown by ambivalent interpretations of the constitution and other important documents when assorted together.